Boats to Buy
From the Bronze Age mariners of the Mediterranean to contemporary sailors using satellite-based technologies, the history of navigation at sea, the art of finding a position and setting a course, is fascinating. The scientific and technological developments that have enabled accurate measurements of position were central to exploration, trade, and the opening up of new continents, and the resulting journeys taken under their influence have had a profound influence on world history.
Institutional Reform of Air Navigation Service Providers deals with the changes that have taken place in this major, technologically progressive industry as many countries moved away from direct provision by the government to forms of corporate or private provision. The author provides an up-to-date institutional and economic analysis of air navigation service providers' efforts to reform their governance and funding structures under these changes. The book discusses air navigation service providers in great detail, with a focus on the historical evolution of the industry's institutional and regulatory frameworks as well as the ongoing developments in the industry (e.g. the Single European Sky in Europe and NextGen in the US). The author departs from the more conventional quasi-descriptive analysis by performing economic and econometric analyses of the industry that explicitly include institutional variables, e.g. to explore whether the nature of ownership can be associated with different economic efficiency outcomes. The result is a rigorous assessment of the structures of various air navigation service providers, strengthened by the use of case studies and policy analysis of potential reform. The theme and scope of this book will appeal to anyone interested in the institutional and regulatory history of air navigation service providers, and its accessible approach will appeal to policy-makers and professionals as well as people who are interested, more broadly, in economic regulation.
This book acts as a manual for the ancient methods of navigating by the stars, which continue to provide the sailor or pilot with a timeless means of determining location.Â Despite the prevalence of GPS,Â a comprehensive set offormulae that can be evaluated on any inexpensive scientific calculator in the event of a catastrophic software or systems failure is a vital failsafe. It also serves as a living link to centuries of explorers from centuries past.
Beginning with the basics ofpositional astronomy, this guide moves on to the more complex math necessary to understand the ephemerides, tables showing the future positions of the stars and planets.Â These astronomical almanacs were the satellite navigation of their day. The objective of this book is twofold: to provide the reader with a concise, comprehensible manual on positional astronomy as it appliesto astro-navigation and to furnish the concise algorithms for findingthe position of the Sun and various navigational stars at any given instant.
In a world where too many mariners andÂ aeronauts rely solely on technology and are vulnerable to solar flares, electrical issues, and the like, this knowledge can be a life-saving backup, not to mention a fascinating study in its own rights. Included is an exactÂ mathematical way to determine your position inthe air or on the sea far more quickly and accurately than by using the old celestialnavigational method, withoutÂ evenneeding to know or understand the underlying mathematics.Â Thereis even a section that teaches how to measure the azimuth of a star usingan analog wrist watch so if a sextant gets damaged, locating position is still possible.Â This book offers mathematiciansÂ and adventurers a way to determine position when the skies go dark.
The U.S. Navy has recently realized that their electronic navigation systems are vulnerable to cyberattack, and as a result has instructed the Naval Academy to begin teaching celestial navigation again.
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